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Indigenous Landscapes and Resource Management in Taiwan and Southeast Asia
February 25 - February 26
Taiwan and Southeast Asia are inextricably linked by historical, cultural, and geographic processes that stretch over centuries into the present. Indigenous perspectives throughout Taiwan and Southeast Asia have been marginalized but have now taken the forefront in discussions on climate change and redress. By bringing together the voices of Indigenous peoples and scholars from many disciplines, the workshops aim to bridge contemporary political and academic boundaries to elicit and examine a more nuanced view of Taiwan and Southeast Asia that centers Indigenous perspectives of land and landscapes.
Indigenous peoples in Taiwan and Southeast Asia have innovatively responded to often-dramatic political, social, and environmental changes for centuries. We view these responses in terms of general ecological adaptations and frame our explanations of these transitions through a comparative perspective that emphasizes the unique advantages of a diverse academic and community networks. This workshop examines methodological and theoretical issues relevant to Southeast Asia and Taiwan from: uses of ethnographic analogy and historical records as data sources; applications of anthropological notions of ethnicity, culture change, historical ecology, and political economy to environmental changes; to collaborations with Indigenous and local populations.
Panel 1: Indigenous Perspectives in Landscapes and History
February 25, 2023, 10:30am – 10:50am
Renewed interest in Indigenous histories and landscape management systems has increased in the last decade. This is partly due to the realization that local histories and Indigenous subsistence systems could help facilitate addressing climate change issues and disaster mitigation. More importantly, however, this interest provides a space for local empowerment, multidisciplinary, and pan-national collaborations. In this panel, we bring together environmental historians and ecologists to discuss the intersections between natural and anthropogenic environmental changes in the past 500 years. Panelists discuss descriptions from documentary sources that chronicle Indigenous and/or local practices that could have contributed to environmental perturbations. The panel will also put forward colonial and state policies that contribute to marginalization of local ecological practices.
Karminn C. D. Daytec Yañgot | University of the Philippines, Baguio
Dr. Augusto B. Gatmaytan | Ateneo de Davao University
Dr. Joy C. Capistrano | Agusan del Sur State College of Agriculture and
Dr. Clement Camposano | University of the Philippines, Visayas
Panel 2: Taiwan and Southeast Asia Climatic Patterns in the Last Millennium
February 24, 2023, 12:50pm – 1:50pm
It has been established that there were major climatic fluctuations between 1400 and 1820 CE, particularly the Little Ice Age and the preceding Medieval Warm Period. In other parts of the world, studies on LIA and its effect on human behavior have been robust, but mostly top-down, emphasizing the role of climate in the patterns of cultural change observed in the archaeological record. Similarly in Southeast Asia, not only is there a very limited investigation on the relationship between climate change and shifts in cultural patterns, almost all studies favor environmental pressures over the suite of human responses. In this panel, we hope to survey what is currently known in terms of climatic fluctuations in the region during the EMP. We aim to highlight that environmental factors play a significant role in human decision-making, but there is limited knowledge on climatic fluctuations in the region during the EMP. Most archaeological studies use environmental proxies to support a model or an argument rather than as a baseline to develop models. We think that this is a consequence of the limited interactions between paleoclimatologists, archaeologists, and historians. Hence, this panel provides a framework on how environmental scientists, historians, and archaeologists can work with each other. The panel will focus on what is known about Southeast Asian climatic patterns in the EMP and potential effects on human options. The panel also discusses how we study paleoclimates and explains the idea of proxies (dendrochronology, pollen, speleothems, and others (e.g. marine sediments). Panel members will also provide an overview of what we already know as well as things that we do not know and want to know.
Dr. Paul Barber | University of California, Los Angeles
Dr. Michael Griffiths | William Paterson University
Dr. Liang-Chi Wang | National Chung Cheng University
Dr. Chih-hua Chiang | National Taiwan University
Panel 3: Indigenous Ecological Knowledge and Landscape Management in Taiwan and Southeast Asia
February 24, 2023, 3:00pm – 4:00pm
Studies of Indigenous and local ecological knowledge systems started in the 1950s with the emergence of ethno-ecological approaches. Such approaches attempt to understand how a culture categorizes their world and explain the logic reflected behind these categorizations. As such, ethno-ecological investigations argued that such Indigenous and local knowledge systems are place-based, contextualized in livelihood practice, and integrated with the cosmological/social complex. In the 1990s, such localized ecological knowledge rose into prominence because of the need to establish alternative/sustainable development strategies. At this juncture, scholars and to some degree, policy makers, have realized the value of such knowledge systems in enriching the human-environment philosophies and in improving land management regimes. This panel aims to encourage such research programs through crossdisciplinary analysis of the studies that focus on Indigenous ecological knowledge, local ecological knowledge, and landscape management in Taiwan and Southeast Asia. Panelists will share their experiences in how they: 1) approach the logic of landscape management in Indigenous ecological and local ecological knowledge; 2) examine current land management regimes that influence Indigenous and local communities; and, 3) rethink the possible contributions indigenous and local ecological knowledge in improving current regimes. The panel also aims to facilitate networking among scholars and provide stronger opportunities to support community involvement in research and policy development.
Dr. Krispin Fernandes | Advisor to the Infrastructure Fund, Timor Leste
Dr. Nicholas Gani | Universiti Malaysia Sarawak
Dr. Chieh-fu Jeff Cheng | National Taiwan University
Dr. Adrian Albano | Ifugao State University
Yi-Chin Wu | Institute of Development Studies
Dr. Raymundo Rovillos | University of the Philippines
Panel 4: Partido State University Research Output: Mt. Isarog: History, Communities, and the Environment
February 25, 2023, 9:10am – 11:10am
A successful and continuing research on community resource and disaster management is the collaboration between the Partido State University (Goa, Camarines Sur, Philippines) and UCLA. This panel highlights the research produced by this partnership through presentations that look at the ecology and environment of Mt. Isarog. The panel aims to encourage such research programs and collaborations that exemplify cross-disciplinary analysis of the studies that focus on local ecological knowledge and landscape management in the Partido District of Camarines Sur. Panelists will share their experiences on how they: 1) approach the logic of landscape management in the region; 2) examine current land management regimes that influence local communities; and, 3) rethink the possible contributions of local ecological knowledge in improving current regimes. The panel also aims to facilitate networking among scholars and provide stronger opportunities to support community involvement in research and policy development.
Dr. Danilo M. Gerona | Partido State University
Dr. Cristina Lim | Partido State University
Dr. Patricia M. Candelaria | Partido State University
Ms. Leih Anne R. Odoño | Partido State University
Karen Artiaga | Partido State University
Dr. Raul G. Bradecina | Partido State University